Gelatin is a protein derived from collagen, a structural protein found in animal connective tissues. It is predominantly sourced from collagen-rich animal tissues, with common sources including bones, skin, and connective tissues of cattle, pigs and, less frequently, from fish. Chemically, gelatin is a mixture of peptides and proteins produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen.

Gelatin may be either Type A (derived from an acid-treated precursor) or Type B (derived from an alkali-treated precursor) that has gone through processing steps that include filtration and sterilization or an equivalent process in terms of infectivity reduction.

Gelatin's unique property lies in its ability to form a gel network. This process is a result of the partial hydrolysis of collagen during extraction. The collagen molecules are broken down into smaller peptides and proteins. When these molecules are dispersed in water and then cooled, they spontaneously assemble into a three-dimensional matrix, giving rise to the gel-like structure. This gelling mechanism is fundamental to the formation of various confections.

The meticulous control over the gelling process allows for the creation of an array of confectionery delights. The ability to manipulate the texture, mouthfeel, and stability of products provides a palette for innovation. The challenge lies in understanding and optimizing the variables involved in gelatin's gelling mechanism to achieve the desired sensory experience in the final confectionery product. Moreover, the compatibility of gelatin with a variety of flavors, colors, and other ingredients adds to its allure in the confectionery world, making it a cornerstone in the art and science of sweet treat creation.

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Source and Processing

Gelatin is predominantly sourced from collagen-rich animal tissues, with common sources including bones, skin, and connective tissues of cattle and pigs. The collagen extracted from these sources undergoes a meticulous process to yield this versatile ingredient.

Its productions starts with the extraction of Collagen through a process involving hot water or acid treatment. The extracted collagen is hydrolyzed, and the resulting gelatin is dried to form a powder.


Main function in Confections

Gelatin is widely employed in the confectionery industry, but also in othe areas sucha as bakery, culinary, beverage an pharmaceuticals due to its gelling and thickening properties:

     Gelling Agent: Gelatin forms a gel-like structure, providing the desired texture in confections like gummies, marshmallows, and jelly candies.

      Stabilizer: Enhances the stability and consistency of confectionery products.

      Mouthfeel enhancer: Gelatin is used to provide smoothness to certain products.


Hygroscopicity: Gelatin has the ability to absorb and retain water, influencing the texture and moisture content of confections.

Gelling properties: It forms a three-dimensional gel network upon cooling. The strength or firmness of the gel created by a gelatin is called bloom, a measure of the gelatin's ability to set and hold its structure. Confectionery scientists pay meticulous attention to the bloom value as it directly influences the texture of the final product. 

​Bloom: Bloom, in the context of gelatin, refers to the strength or firmness of the gel that it forms. It is a measure of the gelatin's ability to set and hold its structure.

Bloom is quantified in terms of Bloom grams. The higher the Bloom value, the firmer the gelatin.

Solubility: Easily dissolves in hot water, allowing for convenient incorporation into confectionery recipes.

Temperature sensitivity: Gelatin-based confections are sensitive to temperature variations; high temperatures can cause melting, while low temperatures may lead to hardening.

Molecular Structure

Protein Composition:

Primary Structure: Gelatin is primarilycomposed of long chains of amino acids, including glycine, proline, andhydroxyproline, which are derived from collagen.

Secondary Structure: These chains foldand twist into helical structures due to intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

TertiaryStructure: Further folding and interactions between amino acid side chainsresult in the formation of a complex, three-dimensional structure


FDA Approval: Gelatin is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).​

Kosher and Halal Certification: Gelatin can be sourced and processed to meet kosher and halal dietary requirements.

In European Union gelatin is regulated by Regulation (EC) 853/2004

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